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为何养猫会导致失明?

Keeping a pet cat puts owners at greater risk of going blind, but a dog appears to protect eyesight, a new study suggests.

一项最新研究表明,养猫会增加主人失明的风险,但是养狗却能保护主人的视力。

Scientists have discovered that dogs and cats carry antigens which can prompt different immune responses in humans.

科学家们发现狗和猫身上都携带能激起人体的不同免疫反应的抗原。

While the allergen which dogs carry reduces the chance of developing glaucoma – the second leading cause of blindness in theUK– owning a cat nearly doubles the risk of contracting the eye disease.

狗身上携带的过敏原会降低主人患青光眼的几率,在英国,青光眼是导致人们失明的第二大诱因,而养猫让主人感染这一眼疾的风险增加了一倍。

Many pet owners suffer mild allergic reactions to their pets but still choose to keep them. However the new study suggests that even a small immune response could lead to blindness.

许多宠物主人对他们的宠物都有轻微的过敏反应,但是却坚持养宠物。然而最新研究表明,即使是个很小的免疫反应都有导致失明的危险。

The study by the University of California, Los Angeles, found that cat owners who reacted to their pet allergen had a 90 per cent increased risk of glaucoma compared with non-pet owners. But dog owners were 20 per cent less likely to develop the debilitation condition.

加州大学洛杉矶分校的这项研究发现,如果宠物猫的主人对他们的宠物过敏的话,其患青光眼的风险比没养宠物的人高90%。但是,宠物狗的主人出现视力减弱的几率却很可能比一般人低20%。

Keeping a dog also has the added benefit that owners are outside more which has been proven to protect against short-sightedness.

养狗的主人需要经常在户外活动,这同时也有助于保护主人的视力,不会近视。

“Not only is Fido man's best friend, he may also save your sight,” said British laser eye surgeon Dr David Allamby.

英国激光眼科医生大卫·阿兰比博士说:“宠物狗不仅是人类最好的朋友,还可以保护你的视力。”

“Cats could cause our immune system to react in a way that predispose eyes to the development of glaucoma.

“而宠物猫却会诱发我们的免疫系统做出不同的反应,导致青光眼的出现。”

“Exposure to dogs appears to be linked to the opposite effect and could be protective against the disease.”

“与狗接触却会产生相反的作用,并且还能防青光眼。”

Glaucoma occurs when fluid in the eyeball stops draining efficiently, causing a build-up of pressure which damages the optic nerve and nerve fibres from the retina. Previous studies have suggested that inflammation can drive the disease and the researchers wanted to find out if that could be triggered by pet allergens.

青光眼是由于眼球中的液体不能有效排出,导致眼内压力累积,从而导致视网膜的视神经和神经纤维受损导致的。早前的研究表明炎症能引起青光眼,研究人员同时还想弄清楚,宠物过敏原是否也会导致青光眼。

Animals frequently groom themselves so allergens from saliva and secretions spread throughout the home, becoming airborne easily where they can be inhaled by humans.

由于动物们频繁地梳理它们自己,所以来自唾液和分泌物的过敏原很快就扩散到整个家里,接着又通过空气传播很容易就被人类吸入体内。

The researchers believe that dogs are healthier for humans because they spend more time outdoors.

研究人员认为,对人类来说,狗更健康一些,因为它们大多数时间都在户外。

“The protective effect of dogs could be due to their natural antigens in their dead skin, but might also be because they spend more time outdoors and are happy to get dirty, whereas cats are cleaner animals,” said Dr Anne Coleman, of UCLA.

加州大学洛杉矶分校的安妮·科尔曼博士表示:“狗的防护作用可能是来自于它们死皮内的自然抗原,但是也可能是由于它们更多时间都在户外,而且把自己弄脏了也很开心,然而,猫却是种爱干净的动物。”

“We already know that exposure to dogs and the germs and bacteria they carry can be good for the immune system. Now it seems to be the case for the eyes too.

“我们已经知道接触狗和它们携带的细菌对人类免疫系统有益。现在发现这似乎对人类的眼睛也有益处。

“Allergens from cats may have biochemical or physical properties that trigger antibodies targeting the optic nerve, while dog allergens may behave differently, possibly because dogs spend more time outdoors."

“猫身上携带的过敏原可能有生物化学性或物理性特征,能诱发针对视神经的抗体,而狗身上携带的过敏原起到的作用却不同,可能是因为狗大多数时间都在户外。”

麦当劳中国更名“金拱门” 炸出一堆段子手

McDonald’s China changed its business name, and consumers aren’t lovin’ it.

麦当劳(中国)有限公司近日更改名称,然而新名称似乎并不讨消费者喜欢。

Chinese media reported on Wednesday evening that McDonald’s Chinese business changed its company’s name from Maidanglao, a loose transliteration of the English name, to Jingongmen, or Golden Arches, on Oct. 12.

中国媒体周三晚报道说,麦当劳(中国)有限公司已于10月12日将名称更改为金拱门(中国)有限公司。原名“麦当劳”是对品牌名称的大致音译。

Although the fast food chain reassured its fans on its Weibo microblog that stores in China will still bear the old name, the new moniker was immediately ridiculed by net users for sounding unsophisticated.

尽管该快餐连锁公司在新浪微博上向其粉丝保证中国的门店不会改名,但新名称还是因为听起来太“土”而遭到网友嘲笑。

一些网友表示,“金拱门”这个名字甚至比“汉堡王”还要接地气,很有点“中华老字号”的感觉。但也有网友表示很难接受,以后要改口说“我们去吃金拱门”吧!

“Jingongmen sounds like a name for a Peking duck restaurant or a traditional Chinese medicine store,” one Weibo user wrote.

一位微博网友写道:“金拱门听起来像是北京烤鸭店或者中药店铺的名字。”

“‘金拱门’听起来还没有咱们“沙县国际”洋气,怎么配得起麦当劳叔叔的身份和段位?”

“‘金拱门’一开,乐得那位长期屈居城中村的青年华莱士都要开香槟庆祝了:这回名字总算比金拱门大表哥高级了吧?”

一听就咬不动啊……

Picking a Chinese name can be tricky for foreign brands. US home-sharing company Airbnb earlier this year chose “Aibiying,” or “welcome each other with love,” for its Chinese operations, but the name was badly received for being difficult to pronounce. Last month, NBA team Dallas Mavericks asked its fans to come up with a new Chinese name because the current xiaoniu is a mistranslation, meaning “little cows.”

选择一个中国名称对一些外国品牌来说很伤脑筋。美国的共享住宿公司Airbnb今年早些时候为其中国业务选择了“爱彼迎”这一名称,意思是“用爱欢迎彼此”,但因为发音拗口遭人嫌弃。上个月,美国职业篮球联赛达拉斯小牛队请粉丝们为他们想一个新队名,因为“小牛队”其实是个误译。

麦当劳(中国)为什么要改名呢?

麦当劳回应称,麦当劳与中信及凯雷成为战略合作伙伴后,因业务发展需要,自2017年10月12日起,麦当劳中国总部的企业名称变更为“金拱门(中国)有限公司”。

McDonald’s low-key name change came after the fast food chain sold the bulk of its Chinese mainland and Hong Kong business to financial conglomerate CITIC Group and American investment company Carlyle Capital in January.

在麦当劳(中国)有限公司低调改名前,该公司已于今年1月将其中国大陆和香港的大部分业务出售给中信集团和美国投资公司凯雷资本。

McDonald’s opened its first restaurant in China in 1990, and the brand, closely associated with a Western lifestyle, took off. Long lines formed whenever a new location opened. However, in recent years the fast food chain has struggled to maintain its growth momentum in China as more prosperous, health-conscious consumers seek alternative dining options.

麦当劳于1990年在中国开设首家门店,生意迅速火爆起来,其品牌与西方生活方式紧密相连。每当有新店开业,门前总会排起长队。但近年来,中国消费者越来越富裕,也越来越有健康意识,就餐选择更多样化,麦当劳保持在中国的发展势头也开始困难起来。

“金拱门”的正确打开方式

麦当劳为何更名金拱门?网友和媒体给出了几种解释。

第一种解释:麦当劳金色拱门形状的标志在西方有个著名的昵称——Golden Arches,直译过来就是“金拱门”。

第二种解释:上个世纪六十年代,麦当劳听取了美国心理学家路易斯·彻斯金(Louis Cheskin)的建议,使用这个金拱门作为自己的Logo。彻斯金称,金色拱门是一种营销策略,可以让顾客看到这个标志时就会想到是一对滋养的乳房——然后他们就饿了。

Around this period, there was discussion for a new logo for McDonald's, and design consultant Louis Cheskin convinced the company to maintain its branding with the arches.

当时大家正讨论给麦当劳设计一个新标志,设计顾问路易斯·彻斯金说服公司保留了原有的金色拱门品牌标志。

Cheskin argued that the golden arches carried the 'Freudian symbolism of a pair of nourishing breasts,' the BBC reported.

据BBC报道,彻斯金建议说,金拱门“在弗洛伊德学说中象征着一对有营养的乳房。”

In this time period, the effects of Freudian theory were still reshaping the world and Cheskin's view is a deeply Freudian concept.

在当时,弗洛伊德学说的影响仍在重塑着世界,彻斯金的意见深受弗洛伊德学说的影响。

还有网友考证,“金拱门”之名其实来源于西方的一个童话传说:故事说的是有一个红衣老人,每到冬天就骑着驯鹿穿过金拱门,来到每家每户为孩子带来礼物和美食。为了纪念这个节日,西方人在金拱门前立了一个金拱碑,还有歌谣传唱:金拱碑,金拱碑,金拱偶的胃……


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